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A spoofing attack is when a malicious party impersonates another device or
user on a network in order to launch attacks
network hosts, steal data, spread malware or
bypass access controls.
There are several different types of spoofing attacks that malicious parties
can use to accomplish this.
Some of the most common methods include IP address spoofing attacks, ARP
spoofing attacks and DNS server spoofing attacks.
IP address spoofing is one of the most frequently used spoofing attack
an IP address spoofing attack, an attacker sends IP packets from a false (or
ďspoofedĒ) source address
in order to disguise itself.
attacks often use IP spoofing to overload networks and devices with packets
that appear to be from legitimate source IP addresses.
There are two ways that IP spoofing attacks can be used to overload targets
One method is to simply flood a selected target with packets from multiple
This method works by directly sending a victim more data than it can handle.
The other method is to spoof the targetís IP address and send packets from
that address to many different recipients on the network.
another machine receives a packet, it will automatically transmit a packet
to the sender in response.
Since the spoofed packets appear to be sent from the targetís IP address,
all responses to the spoofed packets will be sent to (and flood) the
targetís IP address.
IP spoofing attacks can also be used to bypass IP address-based
process can be very difficult and is primarily used when trust relationships
are in place
between machines on a network and internal systems.
Trust relationships use IP addresses (rather than user logins) to verify
identities when attempting to access systems.
This enables malicious parties to use spoofing attacks to impersonate
with access permissions and bypass trust-based network security measures.
ARP is short for Address Resolution Protocol,
a protocol that is used to resolve IP addresses to MAC (Media Access
Control) addresses for transmitting data.
an ARP spoofing attack, a malicious party sends spoofed ARP messages across
a local area network in
order to link the attackerís MAC address with the IP address of a legitimate
member of the network.
This type of spoofing attack results in data that is intended for the hostís
getting sent to the attacker instead. Malicious parties commonly use ARP
spoofing to steal information
modify data in-transit or stop traffic on a LAN. ARP spoofing attacks can
also be used to facilitate other types
attacks, including denial-of-service, session hijacking and man-in-the-middle attacks.
spoofing only works on local area networks that use the Address Resolution
The Domain Name System (DNS) is a system that associates domain names with
Devices that connect to the internet or other private networks rely on the
DNS for resolving URLs,
email addresses and other human-readable domain names into their
corresponding IP addresses.
In a DNS server spoofing attack, a malicious party modifies the DNS server
in order to reroute a specific domain
to a different IP address. In many cases, the new IP address will be for a
server that is actually
by the attacker and contains files infected with malware. DNS server
often used to spread computer
worms and viruses.
There are many tools and practices that organizations can employ to reduce
the threat of spoofing attacks.
measures that organizations can take for spoofing attack prevention include:
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